I suggest that you drill holes and be happy in the knowledge that the connection will never fail (you will never be sure about strength or service life of the connection if you use adhesive). When I first started solo canoeing, I was a “sitter” (before I learned to prefer kneeling), and realized right away that I needed a foot brace of some kind. My foot brace was an old style from Wenonah. I remember that it could be adjusted forward and back on tracks, and each track was fastened to the hull with two bolts. The kit came with pop-rivets, and that’s what most people use, but pop-rivets have absolutely no advantage over bolts unless there’s no access to both sides, and in fact, they aren’t as good. The superior clamping power of even very tiny bolts creates a situation where friction between the foot-brace mounting track and the hull is the only thing that comes into play when you apply force that might potentially make it slip (without sufficient clamping force, it’s only the ability of the hull to resist tearing at the drilled holes that keeps the track in place, and that’s a less-desireable situation. By the way, this same principle is what keeps the wheels on your car from slipping on the hubs during hard acceleration or braking, and that’s why failing to make the lug nuts tight enough leads to broken studs. The lateral strength of the wheel studs never even comes into play as long as the wheel nuts are tight enough that friction alone keeps the wheel from slipping).
Okay, so that’s a detail-oriented description of why foot-brace mounts that are bolted to the hull will be as strong or stronger than any other method you can use. It’s certainly a lot simpler.
For what it’s worth, with low-profile, rounded bolt heads, and the bolts tightened just enough so that the washers sink in flush with the outside surface of the hull, there’s really not much potential for the bolt head to catch on anything.
One more thing. If you ARE going to glue-in your adjusting tracks, you would be far better off using a cross bar instead of foot pegs. With foot pegs, any downward pressure you put on the peg will put a torque on the track in its least-efficient direction, creating far more stress to the connection than what’s necessary. That same downward force applied to a cross bar which connects the tracks on opposite sides of the hull results only in shear, not torque, and shear is the most efficient way for the glued connection to be stressed.